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Anthony Braxton’s Ghost Trance Music: 9 Compositions (Iridium) 2006

Christa Haring
janvier 2012

Résumés   

Résumé

Le multi-instrumentiste, improvisateur et compositeur américain Anthony Braxton est un personnage bien connu dans la musique contemporaine. En se trouvant entre le jazz et l’art musical contemporain, Braxton a développé sa propre stylistique musicale qui se fonde sur un système musical créé par lui-même dès le milieu des années 1960.
Cet article traite de sa Ghost Trance Music (abrév. : « GTM »)qui est l’œuvre centrale de ses compositions entre 1995 et 2006. Après avoir donné un bref aperçu des développements musicaux les plus importants du système musical de Braxton d’une part et de sa philosophie tri-centric d’autre part, les origines et l’idée générale de la GTM seront analysées. Enfin, d’autres détails des compositions de la GTM concernant la structure (trois types principaux de matériau de base), les genres (développement des types de GTM au fil des années), les partitions (avec des exemples originaux) et la représentation (caractéristiques spécifiques) seront illustrés en se fondant sur les deux compositions numéros 350 et 358 des 9 Compositions qui font partie du dernier projet de la GTM en 2006.

Abstract

The American multi-instrumentalist, improviser and composer Anthony Braxton is a renowned figure of late 20th and early 21st century music. Straddling the fields of jazz and contemporary art music, Braxton has developed his own musical stylistics based on a self-created holistic musical system, which he has been constructing since the start of his career in the late 1960s.
The article discusses Anthony Braxton’s Ghost Trance Music (abbreviated: GTM), which was his central compositional work between 1995 and 2006. The article begins with a brief overview of the major developments in Braxton’s musical system and its tri-centric philosophy, which is also the basis of GTM works. Next, the origin and basic idea of GTM are explained. Further details of GTM compositions regarding structure (three main material types), species (development of GTM types over the years), scores (with examples of the original scores) and performance (specific characteristics) are illustrated by means of the 9 compositions #350 to #358, which were part of the final GTM project in 2006.

Index   

Texte intégral   

Introduction

1Anthony Braxton (born in Chicago in 1945) is a multi-instrumentalist, improviser and composer who is widely known as a leading figure in the music of the late 20th and the early 21st century. Interested in various musical field s, he has influenced both jazz and contemporary art music in North America with his works. On the one hand, he has followed improvisers such as John Coltrane or Ornette Coleman since his beginnings in the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) in 1966. On the other hand, he has extended the traditions of American contemporary composers such as Charles Ives and John Cage.

2As a composer, Braxton has developed a unique and personal musical language, combining American traditions with European art music, where he follows the examples of Arnold Schönberg, Karlheinz Stockhausen or Iannis Xenakis. Specifically, his extensions of guided improvisation and notation have enriched modern American music.

3The fact that his music – especially his compositional work – is not easy to categorize can be seen in the following quote by Braxton : « When I think about what’s happening in the music world, and looking at my life, I’ve come to see, that it’s really correct, for instance, that the jazz people see me as not being a jazz musician, and it’s really correct that the classical people see me as not being a classical composer, that my life, in fact, has been in between the African-American and European-American communities, in between the concepts of conservative and liberal1 ». Braxton’s works cannot easily be stylistically classified as they are located between the major fields of jazz and classical music, whereas he himself describes his music as creative music.

4In this article Anthony Braxton’s Ghost Trance Music (abbreviated GTM), which was Braxton’s most extensive compositional output in the years between 1995 and 2006, will be discussed. For a better understanding of the structure of Ghost Trance Music compositions, first a short overview will be given of the most important developments leading to Braxton’s musical system, which is also the basis of Ghost Trance Music works. Next, the origin and the basic idea of Ghost Trance Music will be explained. Further details concerning structure, species, scores and performance of Ghost Trance Music compositions will be illustrated by means of the9 CompositionsN° 350 to N° 358. The cited examples are excerpts of the original scores of Braxton which have been provided for this analysis by the composer himself.

Developments towards Braxton’s Ghost Trance Music

Braxton’s musical system – tri-centric music

5The following statement of James Fei (a composer and performer on saxophones and live electronics who has often worked with Braxton) is an apt description of Braxton’s self-created musical system in which all components and aspects are connected together: « In his work all components are part of a larger, hierarchical system – a unified architecture that ties together all the various aspects of his music, theater, writing, and thinking2 ».

6Braxton started to evolve that idea as a young AACM member after his first flop in the late 1960s : In 196 7, at the age of 22 , he gave his first all-solo saxophone concert where he planned to play one hour of free improvisation. After the first ten minutes of the concert Braxton noticed that he had already implemented all his ideas and that he began repeating himself. He realized that free improvisation without any rules and scores did not work and so he began to look for a way to avoid total freedom3.

7At that point, in contrast to other AACM members, Braxton was not so much interested in developing the individual points of sound (multiphonics, overtones etc.), but he was also looking for possibilities to organize the sounds and to create a context in which he could evolve his work. He developed a kind of syntax which he called sonic units or language types, and for each unit he created its own graphic notation. The different mixtures, combinations and configurations of this basic material were the conceptual instructions for improvisations. By applying this new method of conceptual grafting Braxton found a way to create a solo without the risks of completely free improvisation4.

8Braxton codified the following 12 main language types :

img-1.jpg

Example 1

9At the end of the 1970s, as an important step to wards his overall musical system, Braxton tried to exceed the border of a single composition by combining various works in order to broaden the creative potential of his music. As a new way of performing practice, he started to insert various compositions into one continuo us set in his quartet performances. The compositions the musicians were going to use were selected by the composer according to their potential of musical development, thus improvising the transitions between them. This way of creating a kind of suites was called coordinate music5.

10In the 1980s, as an extension of this approach, Braxton developed the collage music : In the collage music, the members of his ensemble6 also played music of separate compositions, but all at the same time. Braxton compared his idea of the collage music with a walk down the hall of a music school where everybody would be playing something different in each room7.

11Also in the 1980s, the pulse track music, another example of Braxton’s innovations, became important for the development of Ghost Trance Music as well. Within this concept, Braxton noted rhythmic phrases for the instruments of the rhythm section, allowing the soloists to play pitch-based compositions or improvisations at the same time. Thus, a new basis for the interplay between soloist and rhythm section was established8.

12All these steps and developments led to Braxton’s integral musical system, which is rooted in four easily stated principles. These postulates are valid for all of his compositions and were published in his Composition Notes in 19889 :

  1. All compositions in my music system connect together.

  2. II. All instrumental parts in my group of musics are autonomous.

  3. All tempos in this music state are relative (negotiable).

  4. IV. All volume dynamic s in this sound world are relative.

13Summing up these four postulates, one could say that in Braxton’s musical system any note of any composition could be played on any instrument, at any tempo, at any volume dynamics, and in combination with any piece of any other composition.

14After having produced a huge corpus of quartet music, in the early 1990s, Braxton was again looking for a kind of extension of his musical system : He wanted a greater integration of his compositions as well as more space for the individual expression of the musicians10. Because of these further extensions, Braxton also needed a kind of connection in between his work. He compared that with traveling from one town to another one, for instance from Composition No. 47 to Composition No. 96. For that, he was looking for a system of tracks, like a giant choo-choo train system, which would show the combinations in between the towns, in between his compositions11.

15Another aspect was that Braxton also wanted to extend the ritual and ceremonial side of his music and so to emphasize the intuitive part of his music. He explained that his hope was to create a holistic music that integrated body, mind, known, unknown and intuition, referring to the main characteristics of his musical system12. The concept of his tri-centric music basically consists of three partials13 which are represented with shapes :

img-2.jpg

Example 2

16The three partials can be described by different levels:

171) The square relates to the composition, the fixed aspect, which is the known o r the past.

182) The circle refers to the improvisation which is characterized by the unknown or the present.

193) The triangle, a kind of synthesis of the first two partials, in general deals with connections and also has a ritual ceremonial function.

20It can be described as the intuitive component and refers to the future. Every performance of Braxton’s work has to include these three partials, in his Ghost Trance Music, however, he especially wants the intuitive and undefined component to be on an equal par with the defined component. The triangle has therefore become the symbol for Ghost Trance Music14.

Ghost Trance Music – origin and basic idea.

21The idea of Ghost Trance Music dates back to 1995 when Braxton had taken courses on the music of the Native Americans. In these courses, he studied the Ghost Dance rituals of the late 19th century, which had a great impact on him. At Columbia University, New York City, Braxton spoke about the historical background and his interests in Ghost Dance Music : The Ghost Dance Music was composed at the time, when the Native Americans had been decimated and their complete culture had almost been destroyed. Various tribes came together and compared the cultural heritage that was left. The Ghost Dance Music emerged and was described as a kind of curtain : One side was the reality for the human beings and the other side was the area of the ancestors. It would provide a forum to get in touch with their ancestors. The steady pulse, created with regular repeated quarter notes, was designed as a platform for a trance state. Ghost Dance Music was a trance-like experience in which the ghosts of the past and the future should come together15.

22Braxton realized the great importance of trance musics, and from that moment he went on to study world trance musics, particularly African trance musics, Persian trance musics and European trance musics, like the Gregorian chants. He used these examples of Ghost Dance ceremonies lasting for many hours and constructed a « melody that doesn’t begin and doesn’t end16 »which served as the train tracks, the missing connections with in system. The Ghost Trance Music was born and should become the landmark of Braxton’s compositional activities for the n ext eleven years.

23The emergence of Ghost Trance Music was a very important event in Braxton’s work, introducing a new period of musical creativity. Ghost Trance Music did not, however, substitute or erase the previous system, it rather represented a further development of Braxton’s musical system : It was a logical ex tension of his musical ideas, and at the same time it defined new statements about the relationships between composition and improvisation, the individual musician and the ensemble, and the idea of trance as a link between reality and spirituality17.

24In 1996, Braxton defined Ghost Trance as « a process that is both composition and improvisation, a form of meditation that establishes ritual and symbolic connections. It opens up the possibility of compositions that last four or five days, compositions that go beyond time parameters and become a state of being in the same way as the trance musics of ancient West Africa and Persia18 ». The key word in his definition is meditation, which adds a new dynamic aspect among composer, performer and listener to his music.

25The above-mentioned connections between Ghost Trance Music and trance musics are the use of a continuous sound field which is in dependent of a specified time-frame and facilitates the trance experience. Braxton considers Ghost Trance Music compositions to be trans-temporal, which means that they can be performed for hours, days, or even longer. Moreover, Ghost Trance pieces are not principally written for specific instrumentations19.

9 Compositions (Iridium) 2006

26After having spent the first months of 2006 writing the final works of his Ghost Trance Music project20, the 9 CompositionsNo. 350 to No. 358 were first performed and recorded at four successive nights at the Club Iridium in New York City, starting on March 16th 2006. Braxton himself called this project « the point of definition in my work thus far21 », a description that shows the outstanding importance of these works as they incorporate the main ideas of Braxton’s self-created musical system both in conceptualization and realization and as they have been submitted to constant changes.

27Braxton also underlined the work of the musicians in the ensemble, the 12+1tet, an ensemble of 13 members, composed of four groups of three musicians plus one extra person, who was Anthony Braxton himself. The musicians were young innovative musicians of the creative music scene who had already played together for several times with Braxton and even with each other in different ensembles. Like all Ghost Trance Music pieces, these compositions can be performed by any combination of instruments, and in this type of performance, the mix of typically classical and jazz instruments creates a specific sound22.

Structure of Ghost Trance Music compositions

28Although Ghost Trance Music has developed since 1995, the basic format remained the same. According to his tri-centric philosophy, the original structure of a composition consists of three components :

29• Primary material.

30• Secondary material.

31• Tertiary material.

32The performance begins with the primary material which is a long composed melody based on a sequence of mostly staccato notes. In most Ghost Trance Music performances, it is played by the entire ensemble in unison over a constant pulse ; therefore, it is also called pulse material or extended line material. This primary melody is the melodywhich doesn’t end, a written stream of consciousness, being the base of the performance which connects the different aspects of the piece23

33The primary material is notated in what Braxton calls a diamond clef : This s elf-created clef allows each musician to read and play the notes in any transposition or clef24. The following example shows an encircled diamond clef at the beginning of CompositionN° 356 :

img-3.jpg

Example 3

34Altogether, the primary material of these nine compositions comprises 18 to 25 pages.

35Each composition includes four pages of secondary material, which consists of trios in a mainly graphic notation. Thus, the score provides the basis for improvised materials. It is also notated in the diamond clef, always titled with Roman numerals. The secondary material can be inserted at any point in the performance25. The following example is the31 first page of the secondary material of Composition No. 356 :

img-4.jpg

36Example 4.

37As can be seen in the example above, the language music, based on the twelve sonic categories26, is integrated in various forms and combinations in the scores and improvisations of Ghost Trance Music pieces.

38Braxton has suggested that additional compositions of his own corpus of works may be used as tertiary material. Continuing the practices he began to develop in his coordinate music, he chooses those compositions which he thinks would be ideal for the new Ghost Trance Music piece. Like the secondary material, these works can basically be played at any time of the performance as well. In these last performances, Braxton also allows the musicians to introduce additional material of their own choice. Usually, Braxton is unaware of the choices of tertiary pieces27

Species of Ghost Trance Music works

39Since its first appearance in 199 5, Ghost Trance Music has made further develop34ments which can be shown by different « species28 ».The types of Ghost Trance Music works mainly differ by varying rhythmic schemes of the primary melody lines. There can be distinguished between four species29 :

40The first species of Ghost Trance Music works is characterized by a long primary melody based on a steady stream of eighth notes. This rhythmic regularity used to be the basis of Ghost Trance Music works from about 1995 to 1998.

41In 1998, Composition N° 222was the first Ghost Trance Music work in the secondspecies, where the regular stream of eighth notes was broken up : rhythmic breaks, triplets or 16th note runs were inserted. These melodies consisted of metric pulses with oppositions.

42The third species began roughly in 2001 with Composition N° 277. In this phase, the lines of eighth notes were periodically interrupted by polyrhythmic’ tuplets and irregular rhythms with a ratio to the main pulse, like for example, 5 :1, 7 :4 or 7 :3. With the second and third species, Braxton continuously introduced greater degrees of subdivision. Therefore, the rhythmic destabilization increased.

43The accelerator class is the last species of Ghost Trance Music, which Braxton used from 2004 until the last Ghost Trance Music compositions in 2006. As a further development of the rhythmical irritation in the primary melody, the irregular’tuplets were now predominant, so that the steady eighth note pulse had almost entirely disappeared. The basic metric pulse was hardly played, but was used with constantly shifting poly rhythms in larger ratios, like for example 9 :1, 13 :2 or 20 :2.

Scores and performance of Ghost Trance Music works

44An important characteristic of Ghost Trance Music is the individual freedom the musicians have in interpreting the materials within the given frame. Therefore, the scores of Ghost Trance Music pieces offer many possibilities for the musicians to vary the composed melodic line. In the scores, Braxton also marks breaks for possible improvisations. In these 9 Compositions he designed graphic freeze frames, which are different shapes drawn around specific notes in the score30.

img-5.jpg

Example 5 example 6 example 7

45These symbolic shapes can be used as a basis for further creative exploration. There are no fixed rules : At the designated points of the line the performer can play through in regular time, can switch into an improvisation or play a secondary or tertiary piece. The musician can also play the melody at a different tempo, among many other possibilities. There are not even rules when this should happen or how long it should last. Depending on each performance and the particular situation, the performer may decide to return to the on going line, rejoin the ensemble or go to another area31.

46During the performance anything is possible within the context of the given material ; therefore the exact outcome of each performance cannot be pre-planned.

47The organization of the ensemble in Ghost Trance Music performances is a multi-hierarchical model. Braxton is the principal conductor who turns the hourglass at the beginning of the performance and then initiates the opening primary melody. He also gives different signals and instructions and so restates the melody during the performance various times. Of course, he brings the performance to an ending, too32.

48After a few minutes, the musicians break into smaller groups. Then, the Sectionleaders (four groups of three musicians) coordinate the music and the multiple possible strategies of Ghost Trance Music. In the performance, the musicians communicate with a system of hand signals and messages on a small black board33.

49The statement for the performances is navigation through form. The role of the performer – and of the listener as well – is to navigate through form. Compared to a fixed composition, the musicians and the audience are confronted with various events that develop during the whole Ghost Trance Music performance. In other words, navigation through form means the navigation of the primary, secondary, and tertiary materials : It is the musical structure which arises as a map of the countless possibilities of the musicians and the respective ensembles. From the musicians, a Ghost Trance Music performance demands a high intellectual activity and, at the same time, intuitive decisions34.

50Despite phases of musical explorations, that are conducted almost with out the control of the principal conductor, at least half of its time a Ghost Trance Music melody is played by somebody in the ensemble, sometimes even different Ghost Trance Music melodies at the same time, layered a top each other. These melodies are the choo-choo train tracks, the links between the single components which tie all together35.

Conclusion

51Anthony Braxton has developed unique ideas in the musical fields of composing, improvising and performing. With his self-created tri-centric musical system, he has constructed a highly complex building, which is theoretically, philosophically and musically well thought-out and can still be (and will be) extended by the inventor.

52In this article, it has been shown that Braxton’s Ghost Trance Music is a mixture of composed, improvised and intuitive materials, based on the tri-centric idea. Ghost Trance Music is always some kind of creative music– this can be seen as its main characteristics ; each performance is different and depends on the creativity of each performer, so that nobody – the compo ser included – knows how the performance will go on : anything is possible. This is the reason why each performance is so special, exciting and unique.

53An important part of Braxton’s work is his role as a teacher and mentor. Working as a tenured professor at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, since 1990, Braxton has constantly be seen to encourage musicians to perform his works and – of course – to be creative, as well, and to develop their own musical ideas and performance strategies.

54Braxton characterizes himself as a professional student of music, and as such he wants always keep learning and making further developments of his music and his musical system. The main focus of Anthony Braxton’s work and life is creativity : « I see creative music as equal to creative living ; music and life are really both the same thing, there’s no reason why one should not continue to learn and grow36 ».

55Finally, Braxton’s personal comments for all those who are interested in performing his music are37 :

  1. Have fun with this material and don’t get hung up with any one area.

  2. Don’t misuse this material to have only « correct » performances without spirit or risk. Don’t use my work to « kill » young aspiring students of music (in other words – don’t view this material as only a technical or emotional noose that can be used to suppress creativity). If the music is played too correctly it was probably played wrong.

  3. Each performance must have something unique. I say take a chance and have some fun. If the instrumentalist doesn’t make a mistake with my materials, I say « Why ! ? NO mistake – NO work ! » If a given structure concept has been understood (on whatever level) then connect it to something else. Try something different – be creative (that’s all I’m writing).

  4. Finally, I recommend as few rehearsals as possible so that everyone will be slightly nervous– and of course put in « emergency cues » just in case anything goes wrong. Believe me there will be days when nothing works at all. Also try and keep the music « on the line » to maintain the « spark of invention », and be sure to keep your sense of humor.

Bibliographie   

Example 1: Mike Heffley, The Music Of Anthony Braxton, Westport, Greenwood Press, Contributions To The Study Of Music An d Dance, No. 43, Profiles Of American Composers), 1996 , p. 233 .

Example 2 : http://www.wesleyan.edu/music/braxton/braxtonhouse/logo-small.gif, [10 -2007].

Example 3 : Anthony Braxton, Composition No. 365, [self published], 2006, p. 1.

Example 4 : Anthony Braxton, Composition No. 356, [self published], 2006, p. 21.

Example 5 : Anthony Braxton, Composition No. 351, [self published], 2006, p. 4.

Example 6 : Anthony Braxton, Composition No. 355, [self published], 2006, p. 3.

Example 7 : Anthony Braxton, Composition No. 356, [self published], 2006, p. 2.

Notes   

1  Mike Heffley, « Anthony Braxton: The Millenial Interview », 2001, In http://mheffley.web.wesleyan.edu/almatexts/ab3m/ab3m1.htm, consulté en novembre 2008, pp . 4 f.

2  Sam Prestianni, « Life on a Higher Plane », in Jazziz, vol. 19 no 4, Gainesville (FLA), The Jazziz Magazine Inc., April 2002, p. 26.

3  Charles Amirkhanian, « Anthony Braxton, Speaking of Music at the Exploratorium in 1985 (Interview with », Anthony Braxton) in http://www.archive.org/details/BraxtonSOM, consulté en Novembre 2008.

4  Cf. Jonathan Piper, « Like A Giant Choo-Choo Train System », in Anthony Braxton : 9 Comp ositions (Iridium) 2006, New Haven (CT), Firehouse 12 Record s, 2007, p. 7 , and Peter Niklas Wislon, Anthony Braxton : Sein Leben, seine Musik, seine Schallplatten, Waakirchen, Oreos ( = Collection Jazz No. 21), 1993, pp. 96 ff.

5  Cf. Jonathan Piper, op cit., p. 8, and Peter Niklas Wislon, op cit., pp. 112 ff.

6  At that time, the members of Braxton’s classic quartet were Marilyn Crispell on piano, Mark Dresser on bass and Gerry Hemingway on drums.

7  Cf. Anthony Braxton : 9 Compositions (Iridium) 2006, New Haven (CT), Firehouse 12 : FH12-04-03-001, 2007 [DVD].

8  Cf. Jonathan Piper, op cit., p. 8, and Peter Niklas Wislon, op cit., pp. 128 ff.

9  Anthony Braxton, Compositions Notes A, Lebanon (NH), Frog Peak Music, 1988, pp . 395 f.

10  Cf. Jonathan Piper, op cit., p. 9.

11  Cf. Anthony Braxton : 9 Composition s (Iridium) 2006, op.cit [DVD].

12  Cf. Jonathan Piper, op cit., p. 9.

13  Three is a generating number of the tri-centric musics ; everything relates to the number three or to numbers that can be divided by three.

14  Cf. Francesco Martinelli, « A New Set Of Toys In The Triangle House : The Ghost Trance Music’s Of Anthony Braxton », CD liner notes of Sextet (Istanbul) 1996, in http://www.wesleyan.edu/music/braxton/braxtonhouse/bh001.html, consulté en novembre 2008 . This is a simplified description of the basis Braxton ’s complex system. For further information about the theoretical and philosophical background as well as specific contents see Anthony Braxton, Tri-Axium Writings 1-3, Lebanon, NH, Frog Peak Music, 19 85 ; Mike Heffley, The Music Of Anthony Braxton, Westport, Greenwood Press ( = Contributions To The Study Of Music And Dance, No.43, Profiles Of American Composers), 1996, and Ronald M. Radano, New Musical Figurations : Anthony Braxton’s Cultural Critique, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1993.

15  Cf. Anthony Braxton : 9 Compositions (Iridium) 2006, op cit. [DVD] ; and James Fei, « Anthony Braxton : Composition No. 247 », CD Liner Notes, 2000, in http://www.columb ia.edu/ %7Ejcf17/247.html, consulté en novembre 2008.

16  Cf. Anthony Braxton : 9 Compositions (Iridium) 2006, op cit. [DVD].

17  Cf. Francesco Martinelli, « A New Set Of Toys In The Triangle House : The Ghost Trance Music’s Of Anthony Braxton », CD liner notes of Sextet (Istanbul), 1996, http://www.wesleyan.edu/music/braxton/braxtonhouse/bh 001 .html, consulté en novembre 2008.

18  Bill Shoemaker, « Anthony Braxton’s Hyperlink To Creativity », in JazzTimes, vol. 26 no 7, Silver Spring (MD), Jazz Times Inc., September 1996, p. 76.

19  Composition No. 222 (1988) was the first GTM piece which was composed for a specific instrumentation (violin and piano).

20  Compositions No. 350 to No. 360.

21  As cited by Taylor Ho Bynum, « Introduction », in Anthony Braxton : 9 Compositions (Iridium) 2006, op cit., p. 5.

22  The members of the 12+1tet were : Anthony Braxton (alto, soprano, and sopranino saxophones, clarinet, Eb contralto clarinet), Taylor Ho Bynum (cornet, flugelhorn, trumpbone, piccolo and bass trumpets, shell), Andrew Raffo Dewar (soprano and c-melody saxophones, clarinet), James Fei (alto and soprano saxophones, clarinet, bass clarinet), Mary Halvorson (electric guitar), Stephen H. Lehman (alto and sopranino saxophones), Nicole Mitch ell (flute, alto and b ass flutes, piccolo, voice), Jessica Pavone (viola, violin), Reut Regev (trombone, flugelbone), Jay Rozen (tuba, euphonium), Sara Schoenbeck (bassoon, suona), Aaron Siegel (percussion, vibraphone) and Carl Testa (acoustic bass, bass clarinet).

23  Cf. « Soundcheck : Interview with Anthony Braxton, Interview with John Schaefer on WNYC », 2007, inhttp://www.wnyc.org/shows/soundcheck/episodes/2007/04/20#segment77527, consulté en novembre 2008.

24  For example high registered instruments can play the notes in the treble clef, or low registered instruments can use the bass clef.

25  Cf. Jonathan Piper, op cit., p. 10.

26  See 2.1.

27  Cf. James Fei, « Anthony Braxton : Composition No. 247 », CD Liner Notes, 2000, in http://www.columbia.edu/ %7 Ejcf17/247.html, consulté en novembre 2008.

28  Braxton uses the term « species » as denomination for the different types of Ghost Trance Music work s.

29  Cf. Jonathan Piper, op cit , p. 10, and Michel Anton Parker, « Accelerated Ghost Trance » , in http://www.bagatellen .com/archives/frontpage/0 010 62.html, consulté en novembre 2008.

30  Cf. Jonathan Piper, op cit , pp . 10 f.

31  Cf. James Fei, « Anthony Braxton : Composition No.247 », CD Liner Notes, 2000, in http://www.columbia.edu/ %7 Ejcf17/247.html, consulté en novembre 2008.

32  Ibid.

33  39 Cf. « Soundcheck : Interview with Anthony Braxton, Interview with John Schaefer on WNYC », 2007, in http://www.wnyc.org/shows/soundcheck/episodes/2007/04/20#segment77527, consulté en novembre 2008.

34  Ibid, and Jonathan Piper, Op cit., p. 12.

35  Ibid.

36  Mike Heffley, « Anthony Braxton : The Millenial Interview », 2001, in http://mheffley.web.wesleyan.edu/almatexts/ab3 m/ab3m8.pdf, consulté en novembre 2008, p p. 1 0 f.

37  Anthony Braxton, Composition Notes A, Lebanon, NH, Frog Peak Music, 1988, p p. 4 02 ff.

Citation   

Christa Haring, «Anthony Braxton’s Ghost Trance Music: 9 Compositions (Iridium) 2006», Filigrane. Musique, esthétique, sciences, société. [En ligne], Numéros de la revue, Jazz, musiques improvisées et écritures contemporaines, mis à  jour le : 26/01/2012, URL : https://revues.mshparisnord.fr:443/filigrane/index.php?id=353.

Auteur   

Quelques mots à propos de :  Christa Haring

Christa Haring, Née en 1980, elle achève en 2004 une maîtrise d’éducation musicale (MA) à l’Université de Musique et d’Art dramatique de Graz et une maîtrise de philologie espagnole à la Karl-Franzens-Université de Graz (Mémoire de maîtrise : « Somnis irracionals – Une composition aux peintures de Salvador Dalí »). En 2006, elle achève une licence (BA) d’études instrumentales en piano. Depuis 2003 elle est professeur de piano et travaille dans l’enseignement secondaire (musique et langue espagnole). Depuis 2004 elle effectue des études de doctorat ès lettres (PhD) à l’Institut de la Recherche sur le Jazz de l’Université de Musique et d’Art dramatique de Graz (thèse de doctorat : « La musique de piano de Gonzalo Rubalcaba en considération de la musique cubaine et du Jazz »). Ses travaux de recherche actuels visent spécialement la transcription et l’analyse musicale.